Extant Textiles

This piece has a pattern of "octagons framing a bird woven with dark born and buff-coloured wool in weft-faced compound tabby. Two small squares of tapestry in prupel wool and linen thread are woven on the same wapr near two corners." (Becker).

Lampas could be defined as twill weave with a supplementary weft, for brevity’s sake we will leave this here. To the experienced weaver this definition could include any number of weaves which were not lampas. A preemptive example of lampas was this lampas silk from Southeast Spain, the Clothworkers’ Center Catalogue 1312-1864. There were a number of repeated designs incorporated into this cloth. The designs measured as follows; green design 4.5 inches,  blue square design 7 inches by 7 inches, blue round design 7 inches, grey/silver 4.5 inches. This cloth illustrated another type of cloth available to European consumers. The Clothworkers’ Centre has been conserving a number of lampas woven cloths, which would indicate lampas was a staple in the wealthy home.  

Period: 
14th C
Culture: 
Spanish

This pillow was woven in three color taquete. There were “three dark brown bands with small white motifs, two red bands with rectangles and tree motifs, a green band with a diamond motif, and below these registers a blue field with a beige diamond pattern filled with red and yellow trees” (Hoskins, 2003). This pillow measured 34 cm by 29 cm (15.5” x 13”) (Hoskins, 2003). The final pillow was woven “ on a beige field at the bottom edge and then a large green field with white palmettes design interspersed with red and yellow circles” (Hoskins, 2003). This pillow measure 32 cm by 29 cm (14.5” by 13”) (Hoskins, 2003).

 
Period: 
3rd C
Culture: 
Persian
Sasanid

Becker also discusses another pillow from the Antinoe find now held at the Musee Historique des Tissus. The pattern is a while palmette on a green background. The palmettes have spots in two colours between. The spots alternate between red and yellow.

Period: 
3rd C
Culture: 
Egyptian

Becker also included a Sasanid samitum silk, which he stated was cautiously dated to the 5th Century. A fine Z twisted silk was used for the warp. (Becker, 1987). The warp was sett at 50-56 epcm (125-140 epi) (with 25-28 epcm/63-71 epi in the binding structure) and 55-82 ppcm (140-208 ppi) in the weft (Becker, 1987). The variation in warp sett was cited as evidence that looms of this era did not utilize a reed (Becker, 1987). The variation in ppcm was noted as a function of which color (and therefore thread) was being used in the design.The pattern unit was 85 warp ends. The uits are from 3.3-3.8 cm. The pattern seems to have been threaded on a point. Becker noted that weavers could enlarge a pattern by using double or tripled warp ends instead of the single warp ends employed in this cloth. It must be noted that if you take this too far you will "pixelate" your design.The University Mseum for Egyptolog Uppsala Sweden

Catalog # 1380- 1901, which is part of a buskin. This buskin was found and attributed to England and it’s textile artists. The buskin, a knee- or calf-length boot, is a richly embroidered piece. The author would note the beauty of the embroidery, but would also bring the reader back to the primary concern on this paper, cloth. The cloth was woven as a straight twill and used as a Z twill.  The cloth which remained measured 12 inches high by 9 inches wide. Not much of this cloth remained, which would not be surprising from a cloth boot.  

Culture: 
English

The nature in which the Didymoi textile was excavated allowed for more precise dating to 81-96 AD. This textile was extremely well documented. Rogers et al (2001) presented the following analysis. The fragment included 60.5 cm (24 inches) of warp and 10.4 cm (4 inches) of weft. It included a tapestry woven clavus in purple. The clavus measured 2.5 cm (1 inch) wide and ran the entire length of the warp. The textile analysis stated the warp was an undyed Z-spun wool, sett at 29 to 36 epcm (63 to 79 epi)  in the damask ground weave and 34 epcm (75 epi) in the clavus. The weft was also an undyed Z spun wool, at 54 to 70 ppcm (118 to 154 ppi). The clavus weft was also wool and was woven in half basket weave. The analysis of the purple weft concluded the purple was created using a mixture of woad/indigo and dyer’s madder.  This yarn is extremely fine and was packed to 108-124 ppcm (237 to 273 ppi). The cloth’s ground weave is a block structure of alternating 3/1 damask, or 3/1 broken twill, and 1/3 damask, with alternating Z and S twill directions. This block pattern forms a checkered pattern within the cloth itself. The ends per centimeter in the ground weave varies greatly, from 6 to 22 epcm. Rogers wrote this cloth provided evidence of the use of a horizontal loom with shed rods, as discussed earlier.

 
Culture: 
Roman

The Clothworker’s Centre has also undertaken the conservation of a panel of a burse, cloth container for transporting religious items. This particular piece was last listed as on display in the Victoria and Albert Medieval and Renaissance Gallery. The cloth was made of cut velvet and was also embroidered. The woven cloth was attributed to Italian weavers and the embroidery to English artists. The burse was dated to 1320-1340 AD. The cloth measured 10 inches tall by 11 inches wide the warp was roughly 35 epi. The warp of this velvet appeared to have been a natural color, which would not have been expected to be seen when the cloth was new. Velvet warps must leave room for the weft to be looped over a rod and later cut. Although 35 epi is not particularly fine, it was not surprising for this weave structure. This piece pointed to the use of velvet in England. 

Period: 
14th C
Culture: 
Italian

Now in Brixen Cathedral, Austria

Taquete hunting scene now in the Museum of Decortive Art, CopenhagenBecker notes that these taquete hunting scenes were popular from the 4th-6th Centuries AD. A simlar hunting scene is described in Weibel, Two Thounsand Years of Textiles, which is not included here, because Weibel does not specifiy the technique used.Figures of this taquete are done in undyed wool with a buff coloured background. The border of this textiles has a white pattern on purple background.  This piece measure 26 cm x 48 cm. This taquete is attribute to Egyptian weavers, who are known during this time for using S spun warps. Becker believed this piece was woven with 78 pattern shafts.

Period: 
4th C
5th C
6th C

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